21. This is also significant in his analysis of the relationship between artist and viewer where 'there is an exact parallel in the sexual relationships between individuals'. The art-viewer is involved in processes of introjection and projection between himself and artist, via the artwork which can be of either a perversely masochistic, sadistic sort or of a more constructive, nourishing nature, depending on whether destroyed objects/parts of self , or more loving ones are being communicated.
I'm pretty sure Mrs Ramsay is thinking about the swiss maid's dying father.
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Ego psychology was initially suggested by Freud in Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (1926). The theory was refined by Hartmann , Loewenstein, and Kris in a series of papers and books from 1939 through the late 1960s. Leo Bellak was a later contributor. This series of constructs, paralleling some of the later developments of cognitive theory, includes the notions of autonomous ego functions: mental functions not dependent, at least in origin, on intrapsychic conflict. Such functions include: sensory perception, motor control, symbolic thought, logical thought, speech, abstraction, integration (synthesis), orientation, concentration, judgment about danger, reality testing, adaptive ability, executive decision-making, hygiene, and self-preservation. Freud noted that inhibition is one method that the mind may utilize to interfere with any of these functions in order to avoid painful emotions. Hartmann (1950s) pointed out that there may be delays or deficits in such functions.