[Participative Leadership] | The Advantages of Participative Leadership
Gill, R. (2011). Theory and practice of leadership. London: Sage Publications.
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Despite its intuitive appeal, several studies do not support the prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory.   To determine the validity of the prescriptions suggested by the Hersey and Blanchard approach, Vecchio (1987)  conducted a study of more than 300 high school teachers and their principals. He found that newly hired teachers were more satisfied and performed better under principals who had highly structured leadership styles, but the performance of more experienced and mature teachers was unrelated to the style their principals exhibited. In essence, the Vecchio findings suggest that in terms of situational leadership, it is appropriate to match a highly structured S1 style of leadership with immature subordinates, but it is not clear whether it is appropriate to match S2, S3, or S4, respectively, with more mature subordinates. In a replication study using University employees, Fernandez and Vecchio (1997)  found similar results. Taken together, these studies fail to support the basic recommendations suggested by the situational leadership model.